Confederate States Army hand drawn ink on paper artillery position map of the defensive line arranged by Brigadier General Philip St. George Cocke prior to The First Battle of Bull Run. Also known as the First Battle of Manassas, the battle was the first major engagement between Union and Confederate forces, fought in Prince William County, Virginia on July 21, 1861. The map details the positions of leading officers of the Army of the Potomac and the Army of the Shenandoah, (prior to their integration into Army of Northern Virginia on March 14, 1862), including Brigadier General Philip St. George Cocke, Major James B. Walton, Captain Robert M. Stribling, Captain John A. Coke (erroneously listed as "Cocke"), Captain Willis J. Dance, Captain John B. Brockenbrough, Captain Allen S. Cutts, Captain Thomas J. Kirkpatrick, First Lieutenant Alexander M. Hamilton (listed as a Captain), Lieutenant Robert F. Beckham (listed as a Captain), and Captain Coleman. The officers are identified on the map key by alphabetical letters A-N, each letter corresponding to a position with an illustrated diagram and list of artillery equipment, for example "C Genl Cocke Battery", top right of map. Each position is situated around Centreville in Fairfax County, Virginia, identified by a cluster of small buildings and trees delineating the town. Centreville is depicted at the center of the Leesburg Road, Old Road by Mill, Fairfax Turnpike, Braddocks Road, Manassas Road, and Warrenton Pike, each identified on the map. Pencil inscription reading "I send this […] you might like to have it Respect Mary A Coleman" the wife of Lewis Minor Coleman, lower left of map. 12 1/2" H x 15 3/4" W. Note: Philip St. George Cocke (1809-1861) was a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the first year of the American Civil War. He is best known for organizing the defense of Virginia along the Potomac River soon after the state's secession from the Union. On April 21, 1861, Cocke was appointed as a brigadier general in the service of the Commonwealth of Virginia by Governor John Letcher. He was assigned command of all state forces along the Potomac River. Three days later, from his headquarters at Alexandria, Virginia, he reported to newly commissioned Maj. Gen. Robert E. Lee (assigned on April 22 to the command of all Virginia forces) that he had only 300 men to defend against what he thought was 10,000 Union troops across the river in Washington, D.C. Cocke made his headquarters at Culpeper, Virginia, on April 27, in order to better oversee the entire line of the Potomac as well as the mustering of volunteer troops in a large part of the state. Alexandria was evacuated by Lt. Col. A. S. Taylor on May 5, despite Cocke's orders "not to abandon it without fighting, even against overwhelming numbers". Under Robert E. Lee's orders, Cocke organized a new defensive line at Manassas. Cocke may have been the first to formulate the Confederate defensive strategy of concentrating forces at Manassas and at Winchester in the Shenandoah Valley, and using the Manassas Gap Railroad to allow them to be mutually supporting. This strategy would be a decisive factor in the Confederate victory in the First Battle of Bull Run. When Virginia's state forces were consolidated with the Provisional Army of the Confederate States, Cocke was given the rank of colonel in the new CSA forces. Because of this effective demotion, Cocke was superseded in command at Manassas on May 21 by Brig. Gen. Milledge L. Bonham and took command of the 19th Virginia Infantry Regiment. Cocke was eventually assigned to the army of P. G. T. Beauregard in command of the 5th Brigade, consisting of the 8th, 18th, 19th, 28th, and 49th Virginia Infantry regiments. His brigade was initially assigned to Centreville, but in the face of advancing Union forces, withdrew behind Bull Run on July 17. On July 20 Cocke was stationed at Ball's Ford on Bull Run. In the subsequent First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861, Cocke was assigned to advance against Centreville, a plan abandoned when the Federals began their flanking movement against the Confederate left. While Col. Nathan George Evans, reinforced by Brig. Gen. Barnard Bee and Col. Francis S. Bartow, opposed the enemy, Cocke's forces defended against attack in the vicinity of the Stone Bridge, with his headquarters at the Lewis house. At 2 p.m., about an hour before the arrival of Elzey, he led his brigade into action on the left with "alacrity and effect." He was promoted to brigadier general in the Confederate Army on October 21 and given command of the 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division of the Confederate Army of the Potomac. First Bull Run was Cocke's last battle. After eight months' service, during which he was promoted to brigadier general in the provisional Confederate army, he returned home, "shattered in body and mind". Exhausted from the strain, and despondent over perceived slights from General Beauregard stemming from the Battle of Manassas, Cocke shot himself in the head on December 26, 1861, at his mansion, "Belmead", in Powhatan County, Virginia. For additional reading, see Davis, William C., "Philip St. George Cocke", The Confederate General, Vol. 2, Davis, William C., and Julie Hoffman (eds.), National Historical Society, 1991, Davis, William C. "Battle At Bull Run: A History of the First Major Campaign of the Civil War". Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1995, Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., "Civil War High Commands", Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001, and Evans, Clement, "Philip St. George Cocke". Confederate Military History, Volume III. Atlanta, GA: Confederate Publishing Company, 1899. CONDITION: Overall good condition with brown stains, largest 2", and tears, largest 1", to be expected from age and manner of use. Areas of toning along center fold line and 6 1/2" x 8" area, lower left quadrant of map. Ink writing in strong, clear condition. Pencil inscription faded but still legible.
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